Story “Human” Complete edited First Chapter. “Waiting For Eternity”

Chapter 1 “Waiting for Eternity”

He told me I died.

That I was buried underneath the watery debris of the fallen dam I had been walking on moments before, causing my lungs to burst…and I died. It’s amazing how quick a life can be taken away. In one moment you’re there, and the next you’re just gone.

I was still working past the initial shock. What came after death wasn’t at all what I thought it would be. There was no bright light, no silver lining, no out of body experience.

In movies I had seen they always show the person crossing over to embrace a deceased loved one. I had been half-expecting Grandma Marie to be waiting for me and holding a pile of cookies. I wasn’t expecting a sullen skinny man named Gilbert.

The room I was currently in—well if I can even call it that—was white, just an endless chain of sanitary nothing.

“Where am I?” I asked.

             “You died” he had said, plain and simple. As if there was nothing complicated about it. I knew that voice he used, my father had used it often. ‘It is what it is, and there’s nothing you can do about it now’. It was how he had reasoned with everything. My father and I were so different. I saw things with meaning and affection and, well, he didn’t.

              “My name is Gilbert. I’ve been assigned to be your guide through this decision process. Tell me Alexandria, do you remember how you got here?”

              I could hardly forget it. I was still coughing up water, could still feel my throat burning and my fear of not being able to breathe—drowning was a very unpleasant feeling.

              He continued to stare at me through cold stony eyes. He looked human. He had sandy blonde hair and blue eyes, but there was no depth to him. He had no lines showing that he had ever fallen in love, been disappointed, or ever been afraid. He was just empty.

              “The difference between you and I is that you still have your humanity. This is the place where you are cleansed before taken up to what is beyond.” He said coolly.  “Your death was very unexpected so you have a choice to stay here or to go back to earth and continue a human life for one more year. There you will be permitted to deal with any unfinished business you may have.”

              My thoughts seemed to get lost from the time Gilbert talked to me to the point where I had been ushered away like cattle to another room. Although the things he had told me were slowly starting to seep back into my consciences I was far to absorbed in the idea of getting the chance to go home to really listen to them.

              Of course with any offer that was usually too good to be true there were some repercussions. He said as long as I had my humanity I would be easily perceptible to demons and seduction. If seduced I myself would become a demon and would carry out the job to seduce other potential crossovers.  However I had already made up my mind on a impulse long before he could tell me about how dangerous it was.

              He had me stand in one of two lines with a bunch of offhanded people in my soaked squashy shoes and dripping wet hair. As far as I could tell all of the people who had died suddenly were in my line and the others who died old or with a long term illness, who had prepared themselves for death, were in the other.

The white sanitary (well, whatever this place was) was filled with people, all dressed in a wide variety of outfits—whatever you were wearing when you died, that was what you were stuck with until you made the cross over. So if you died naked in a bath tub, that was it, stark naked for everyone to see. Everyone was very calm though, very still—not at all what you would expect a large crowd to look like.

Even I felt the strange sereneness from this place. I only had my thoughts to keep me company.

There were several pillars spread out through the wide room, but they blended in well with the rest of the white placements. There were four desks at the top of the lines where people who were as voided of their humanity as Gilbert were waiting. The marble floor looked ancient and new at the same time. Like it was made out of something you would see in Greek mythology, but it was so polished that it didn’t look aged.

              I thought about how I ran away from home. I wasn’t sure how long ago it was now. Based on the medieval outfits and wide circus tent dresses I got the feeling that time wasn’t linear here. It had been pouring buckets of rain, but in my stubborn state I couldn’t see the danger in that scenario. My mother was yelling at me and I was yelling for reasons I can’t even remember…I knew my father would just take her side so I packed my backpack and snuck out my window. I thought I could just drop out of school and join a band or something awesome like that.

There was a dam that separated my house from the town, from my escape, and I tried to climb over it. Half way there the flood swallowed the sticks and pulled me down with it. I wondered if my family even knew I was gone. Would they care? Would it even make a difference?

              “Alexandria Watson” a woman spoke softly motioning with her long stiff neck for me to take a seat in the chair across from her desk.

The lady sitting across from me—Petunia Plattwood, she said was her name—was oblivious to my inner struggle. She just sat there behind her desk, patiently as if nothing affected her. This seemed to be a pattern here. I suppose I couldn’t expect to see a friendly face when everyone had been drained of humanity.

              I exhaled deeply and plopped down. She already had my file in front of her. I wondered if it was like a longer version of Santa’s Nice and Naughty list. I got the feeling that I would never know.

              “Are you sure that this is what you want?” she asked slowly, turning through the pages of my file. There was a certain aristocracy in her high-pitched voice, as if there was more than just a glass desk standing between us. She was dressed in a polished pink jacket and a matching pin skirt and tiny top hat. It was almost comical that even in death people cared what they looked like. Her manicured hands clasped in front of her on the desk as she waited patiently for my answer.

I slumped back in my chair, but after a pointed look from her I straightened myself and nodded.

“I am,” I said, grinding my teeth together. This was another thing that I thought would pass after I had died. I had ground my teeth down so much that I had been forced to wear a retainer at night for protection. I couldn’t say I was going to miss that thing.

I knew what she probably thought of me. Soggy converse shoes, skinny jeans and a large oversized Guns N’ Roses t-shirt. I hadn’t fit in much in life so why would I expect any different in death? I had inherited my mother’s face—her blue eyes, plump lips and ebony hair, but that was about as far as anyone would go in calling me beautiful. I despised my lean form and my dainty little feet. To top it off I was stuck at 17.

More than anything else that defined the received condescending look from her eyes. I was a teenager, therefore I knew absolutely nothing.

My parents were always giving me this look—and that’s why I did it, ran off I mean…to show them that I could take care of myself. Perhaps if I had listened to them I wouldn’t be in this position at all. I would be home, warm and tucked under my blankets while my mom made me dinner. If I was less stubborn it would be easier to acknowledge, but I didn’t want to feel guilty. My own selfishness was the only thing that kept me from falling apart at the news of my own demise.

              “This decision should not be taken lightly Alexandria” Petunia said calmly. “Going back to earth is dangerous no matter what the circumstances are. You haven’t been fully cleansed of your humanity so you are an easy target of seduction.”

              I smiled slightly, but thought it would be inappropriate to laugh.

              “Look when I got here—my guide, Gilly”

              “Gilbert” she corrected.

              “Gilbert, he already gave me the whole run down on everything”

              I could recall all of the ominous warnings he had given me. I’m sure he meant to sound intimidating, but I was too excited as such a prospect to care.

              Gilbert had told me the basics…everyone had a guide when they died, to explain things and to let it sink in before sending you on your way to deal with people like Petunia. Death was a very complicated process.

              He explained how the choice was able to make now had been made after the incident with the fallen angels. He said that they now wanted to take precautions to make sure the ones who went to heaven were going to stay there.

              “When a soul is put back on earth they are up for grabs for both sides. It’s up to you to prove your worth and to stay out of harm’s way. Manipulation on your new vulnerability is one of the key components that the demons use to turn you. It’s a very dangerous game.” He told me.

              Petunia straightened and then paused briefly.

              “Alexandria, you are still very much tormented with humanity, and you died very young so you will be a more perceptible target. Demons are not what you would expect them to be. They look like ordinary people, the mailman, a cute boy in your math class, a librarian…. And they will say or do anything to possess your soul.”

              “I understand” I said, “I do, really”

              She took a deep breath and then nodded once.

              “As you wish, you will be given one human year to get it together and then you will be taken up here to get cleansed, assuming that in that year a demon doesn’t conquer you first, which in that case I am afraid there isn’t anything we can do.  Rules; one, no one from your previous life will be able to see you, so in order to keep a low profile you must make sure that the other mortals do not realize this. Two, you are no longer human even if you do have a presence on earth so you will not ever be hungry or tired…but all of your human instincts will be heightened. It’s important that you try to stay away from emotions of anger or jealousy or greed which will draw you out to a demon.”

              She opened a clear box and pressed a big button that made the chair I was sitting in sink into the ground. It all passed in a flash. I could feel my hair go up into the air and my hands clenched down on the seat I was sitting on for fear of falling off of it, but in an instant it was over. The chair was gone, as was the white room and Petunia. I was at my hometown sitting in a pew of a church. I should’ve known I’d end up here. It felt strange to feel the smooth russet wood under my white fingertips. I had never been to this church before, but something about it made me feel at ease. There were worn bibles along the back of the pew in front of me and the carpet was emerald green. The sun shone through the stainless glass windows and broke out in a rainbow of colors. It was refreshing to see color that wasn’t white.

              I got up, my legs shaky and I moved out to the aisle. At the front of the aisle a priest stood. He looked ancient. He had wrinkled turtle skin, white ashy hair and glasses. He was reading out of the bible marking passages with a pen. When he heard me get up his head lifted to mine. He winked when he saw me and I gulped surprised that he knew who I was.

              “Alexandria?” he said. I nodded and walked over to him. “I was expecting you. You’ll find what you need in that box over there.” He continued, pointing to a box at the end of the room. He continued to mark passages not phased by me.

              I walked over to the wooden box. It reminded me of one those things they use in sermons that you pull bread out of. There was a simple cross engraved on the top and a small latch to open in the front. I wasn’t sure if I’d even be able to touch it. In all of the movies I had seen, when a dead person tried to touch something there hand would shoot right through it. I placed my hand on it carefully, and at the feel of smooth wood I opened it and grimaced. There were clothes—very preppy, expensive looking clothes, an I.D.—on it was a picture of me, and a changed last name…Alexandria Watson had now become Alexandria Angel. I rolled my eyes at the irony.

              I had absolutely no idea where to start or what exactly I was supposed to learn from all of this. Part of me was still hoping that it would all turn out to be a bad dream.  All I cared about was getting my life back. The rest would follow.

              Little did I know the smell of my arrival had already struck a loud chord through the damned. The taloned hand of the devil scraped through the earth, pointing in my direction…letting the demonic wasteland know that another injured bird had landed. The hand had already started to close…like a fly trap, waiting for the inevitable.

              I should’ve stayed home.

Hypertext and Feminism


Reading has drastically changed with the advancement of technology. Doors to new possibilities have opened and books are no longer acknowledged as single purpose objects. Through digital mediums stories can now be told in experimental and non-traditional fashions. One experimental writing form is hypertext. According to Ted Nelson, hypertext is defined as “a software system that links topics on the screen to related information and graphics, which are typically accessed by a point-and-click method.” Hypertext breaks traditional form and adds several interactive features allowing participants to explore the message or theme at an exceptionally profound level. Nelson believes hypertext was the catalyst for the new era in written word. This new era was drastically different than traditional methods of reading and writing, but was readily accepted by those who utilized digital literary mediums.

“Patchwork girl”, a hypertext story written by Shelly Jackson, uses hypertext to present a feminist message. Jackson tells the story by using drawings of female body parts stitched together through text and illustration. The story and the images utilized to create Patchwork Girl uses this breakage from traditional writing and parallels it with the voice and perspective of a female narrative. Patchwork Girl is written in Hypertext style to give writer Shelly Jackson an experimental voice to mold and shape as her own without being transfixed to a still page. Patchwork girl correlates with an expression of feminism because it moves away from the indoctrinate style of writing with its nonlinear form, its deconstructive body of the monster and its lexias, and the random selection of its text.

As seen through lecture, hypertext has three central defining functions. It has multiple pathways to continue the reading, chunked text, and a navigation system of links. The form of hypertext is revolutionary because it breaks apart linear writing styles and puts it into something completely new. By making the writing nonlinear the author is essentially no longer in control of the flow of the story. Instead, the reader has control and can navigate the story as she or he wishes. The reader chooses the pathway and she or he autonomously concludes the ending.

While some authors of Hypertext stories may etch a constant fixed destination, other Hypertext stories reveal alternate conclusions depending on the reader, at least the reader can choose the road. The reader is not bound by a narrow pathway, but instead she or he has liberty to choose. The journey to the destination matters and choice, freedom, and independence is what Hypertext offers. Equality reverberates in the very foundation of Hypertext.

In Patchwork Girl, Jackson has more of a conversation with the reader about feminism and allows the reader to come to the same conclusion through the nonlinear usage of hypertext. The message of feminism is all about equality and by using hypertext this message is not only in the writing, but it also in the construct. Patchwork Girl has apparent ploys to convey a feminist message, but the hypertext medium itself expresses feminism because it breaks away from tradition. The writer and the reader become equal participants in pushing the story forward. Just like in feminism, both parties are equally important in carrying out to the finished goal. Robert Coover wrote that “the traditional narrative time line vanishes into a geographical landscape or exitless maze, with beginnings, middles and ends being no longer part of the immediate display. Instead: branching options, menus, link markers and mapped networks. There are no hierarchies in these topless (and bottomless) networks, as paragraphs, chapters and other conventional text divisions are replaced by evenly empowered and equally ephemeral window-sized blocks of text and graphics — soon to be supplemented with sound, animation and film” (Coover 707).  He continues by rhetorically asking if hypertexts are “to be linked to the chain of existence and events, (he answers) yes, but bound by it? No. I forge my own links, I am building my own monstrous chain, and as time goes on, perhaps it will begin to resemble, rather, a web.” Coover’s quote repeated by the monster in Patchwork Girl, not only shows the power of feminism underlined, but also relates directly back to usage of hypertext. Hypertext is completely different from the traditional hierarchal form of writing and just like the monster wishes to be something equal and autonomous, hypertext does so simultaneously.

The first image that is seen when entering the story of Patchwork Girl is the deconstructed monster. The body metaphorically represents the body of text that is the story and the body that must be sewn together in order to unfold itself into its story. This monster parallels greatly with Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and is also equally as important to understand and travel through to comprehend the message of feminism behind the story. The female monster correlates Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein’s monster and offers a parallel to the words of Mary Shelly’s monster. What the monster in Frankenstein yearned for the most was a female companion to be his equal counterpart so he did not have to live in solitude, dominating over another sex. The wish was denied in Frankenstein, however this power of equality is granted in Patchwork Girl as the author stitches the patchwork of the story and creates the female monster. Frankenstein thinks better of creating the female counterpart in Mary Shelly’s book and destroys the monster and in Patchwork girl the female monster is given a voice to parallel as the reader patches it together. The reader essentially gives the monster life and the female monster interrupts the voice of Mary Shelly and remarks “I told her to abort me, raze me from her book; I did not want what he wanted. I laughed when my parts lay scattered on the floor, scattered as the bodies from which I had sprung discontinuous as myself rejoice to be.” The body is reassembled by reading about all of the different body parts and the story cannot continue without first reassembling the body parts of the monster and thus giving it the voice and option to speak its story. (PatchworkGirl)

Hypertext relents the author from taking dominance by allowing the reader to make the choice of which text box to click on and continue the story. The link between written and stitch not only portrays the metaphor written in the following body paragraph, but also shows the equal importance of the reader and the writer. The reader must stitch the story together and the writer is responsible for the text on the screen. Both links to sewn and writing parallel each other to convey this importance. There are five paths for the reader to take; “the graveyard, the journal, the quilt, the story, and the broken accents.” The reader chooses where to begin by constructing the story together. The reader in a sense is responsible for constructing the monster by which text box they decide to click on. All text boxes lead to several more text boxes in which the reader again gets to choose randomly of how to progress this story. The reader is essentially the parallel of Frankenstein and is responsible to giving life to the female counterpart of the monster. Shelley Jackson uses the voice of the monster to remark on how the original Frankenstein story structure and control of the author kept the monster back. “I alone remember the real Mary. Her curious mix of resonance and passion. The part that twisted under me with a dark satisfaction and the part that wiped her hands afterward and twitch the curtains open with punitive haste. You can see it in her book. How she embeds her tale in a thickness of letters and second hand account as if precaution were needed to secure the monster behind those locks and screens.” The usage of hypertext gives the monster more dominance vs in Mary Shelly’s story where the still pages in them self held the monster back and kept it constrained. It is only through the random selections of story that allows the female monster it’s free voice to speak openly and lively with the reader. The author seems to have little power to what the monster will say next because it is not controlling the voice.

Patchwork girl is an expression of feminism because it moves away from the indoctrinate style of writing with its nonlinear form, its deconstructive body of the monster and its lexias, and the random selection of its text. Hypertext diverges from the hegemonic style of writing and provides freedom for writers and readers. Not only does hypertext writing reflect the feminist theory, but the theme within Patchwork Girl explicitly reflects the medium through which the story is written. Without the shared control, the work perhaps could not be close read and defined as something equal. Nor would it be able to parallel with Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein so deeply to its very core and would lose its ability to critique the author through structure. Hypertext is one of many experimental forms of the digital that opens the door to convey new messages. It is important to understand how hypertext can be used so a deeper point can come across to the reader.

“House of Paper”/Evolution in a Digital Era


Not all books owned come with the intention of reading. Some books can fill a house, but with little purpose other than decoration and as a reflection of how people want to be viewed by the outside world. With the rapid growth of digital literacy it is arguable that books are far less valuable then they once were. In the “House of Paper”, Carlos Maria Dominguez indicates that the function of a book on a bookshelf changes from person to person. Through textual evidence and explication of the character of Carlos Brauer, Dominguez persuades the reader and himself that in the Digital Age the survival of books relies on the recognition of the different purposes that a book holds.

Books are “capable of surviving one, two, or twenty centuries, of in some ways defeating the sands of time.” (Dominguez76) As seen through Nicole Howard in “The Life Story of a Technology” books are survivors, but not without change. Although a book is not a living organism, it is in a lot of ways alive and must adapt with the times, or face the threat of being left behind. There are a lot of aspects about books that have already changed over time. Typography for one is no longer created for its aesthetic beauty, as it once was in the 15th century, but now is printed with the mindfulness of space and clarity. There is no question to whether this new format changes the experience, but the consequences of holding onto the past too tightly result in the destruction of the object. In “The House of Paper” Carlos Brauer insisted on reading books that came before the twentieth century with candle light and urged his peers to do the same. The consequence that came with the inability to accept a book as an evolving technology resulted in the literal destruction of his index-file cabinet, without of which he could no longer find any of his books. Brauer was reluctant to create a modern device that would section off his books, but came to the sickening conclusion without the technological progress the books could no longer be found and read. In chapter two of “The House of Paper” Dinarli complains about people who bind old books. “I can’t persuade them to give up the obscure pleasure of the guillotine.” (Dominguez28) Binders are meant to give a book life again so that it can be used for new purposes and it can survive. However, many hold on to the history of what a book was and are reluctant to use it for anything else. They let books sink into their own graves to preserve what they once were. Books weren’t meant to be chained down to desks forever and they shouldn’t be treated as though they were.

With the invention of The Printing Press books became easily accessible to everyone. The journey of a book is no longer singular, but multi-dimensional. In the House of Paper Dominguez gives the reader several examples about the ways books change people’s destines and the journeys that they take them on, but what is even more remarkable is the way that a person can change a book’s destiny. It can be argued that a book doesn’t have a destiny because it is not alive. However, In “The House of Paper” as well as Howard’s “The Life of a Technology” there are a lot of similarities between books and people. In “The House of Paper” books have human characteristics; they laugh and talk with their owners and there a lot of images with books that have human facial features. Howards formation of the autobiography of a book was established in three sections that resembled a human lifespan; youth, adolescence, and adulthood. The relevance in all of these similarities lies into two explanations. One, books evolve over time like people do because they are essentially alive and two, being the way that people can change a books destiny. “To build up a library is to create a life.” (Dominguez35) Meaning, people are what give a book a life and they can easily take that life away. On page 54 of “The House of Paper” Dominguez learns of the books that were “carefully laid out in such a way that they reproduced the mass and outline of a human body.” It is interesting to note that the books didn’t place themselves on the bed in that formation, but were put there by a person. The magic and value that books hold is only animated as long as the reader gives it to them. It is the responsibility of people alone to determine the survival of a book by giving the book multi functions.

With the technological advancements in the digital era, books aren’t exactly the most convenient resource to use for reading anymore. In a lot of cases they are often bulky, heavy objects that take up unnecessary space. In mass quantities they can overwhelm homes and grow out from there original booksheleves just as they did to Brauer and Domiguez. Ebooks have become the prominent source of reading in this period and books for reading have decreased rapidly from what it was a century ago. Now, like so many times before, books have evolved. The functions of a book change from person to person. In the beginning of Chapter 4 it describes books being used as furniture, as means to keep furniture together—propping up a table, they are used to store things; leaves, flowers, money, letters…Braurer even uses the books to build a house. Books can be used for the simple satisfaction of having other people view them. Delgado kept his books in a separate part of his house with no intention of ever reading most of them, but still felt an overwhelming sense of pride when people saw them. He claimed that, “books should not get contaminated by domestic life.” (Dominguez 34) There are people and books that disagree with the function of being a decoration. Books can act as entity of a person, like an arm or leg. A book can be reflection of one’s own journey and can be falling to bits, with a broken spine and a missing cover, but is kept as a reminder of who that person is. Marshal Mcluhan illustrates what Dominguez writes on 21 in “The Medium is the Massage.” Books can function as a form of show business. Dominguez writes;

There were brilliant stars in the literary firmament, people who earned a fortune overnight with dreadful books that were promoted by their publishers, in newspaper supplements, through marketing campaigns, literary prizes, ghastly films, and prominent, paid-for-positions in bookshop windows. (Dominguez21)

A purpose of a book can sometimes simply be produced as an object that only serves to a monitorial value. Just as people fall into the Harry Potter franchise. It’s about marketing a book and giving it the multi-purpose to become a movie and a poster and a five-foot cut out of the heroine. Owning the book can be a symbol of being apart of something.

Brauer’s inability to see books with any other purpose besides things that needed to be read was his fatal flaw when it came to his books survival. In a lot of ways Brauer was a metaphor for what Mcluhan would refer to as “rearview mirror thinking”. Instead of torturing himself and letting himself be kicked out of his bedroom and take cold showers in both the summer and the winter, why didn’t he just buy a kindle? Owning a book to read it is no longer enough to sustain it. If there is an attachment, or another function it is hard for a book to progress into the digital era. Braurer’s reluctance to see a book as an entity that went past something that could be read is what led those books the path to their watery grave. The lack of innovation from the owner can also change the destiny of a book. Dominguez decided the fate of the Conrad book when he saw the destruction of the other books in the sea. when he saw the destruction of the other books in the sea. “What else could a book do here but bury itself in the sand, let itself be eaten away in the darkness, suddenly break the surface like the remains of a shipwreck?” (Dominguez85) The Conrad’s book, although it could not be read had in that moment had the purpose of a talisman. Thus, it survived but if the owner had chosen alternatively it could have easily have been to waste away at the bottom of the ocean.

The survival of book relies on the owner recognizes its different functions. The function of a book changes from person to person, but in all cases a book has surpassed its need to be something that is merely read. Through the story of Brauer and the choices of Dominguez the survival of a book can be found based on the recognition of the books evolution. If a book is used as something from the past, it will stay in the past. Digital Literacy will not destroy the book as long as the book can change its function. Just because the book is just read, doesn’t mean it has died. It has just evolved.

Milton Behind the Story of Paradise Lost

Paradise Lost is definitely a book that I want to read again. I read this book in school first so my review will primarily be a history lesson on why this book became.

It is a book that a lot of people have confused with real events, but I like the concept of having Lucifer have more human nature before the fall. There is so much background of the story as well that made me appreciate the book that much more. Seeing as the book was written during a time when the freedom speech was not a well known practice Milton indirectly used this novel to compare the heavenly revolt against the angels to the English Civil Wars of 1642.

England was divided in the 1640s between two political groups; the Royalists and Parliamentarians.
The Royalists consisted of a group of people who supported King Charles I absolute power.
Milton was among the Parliamentarians who believed that the country should be governed by Parliament and the King’s Power should not be absolute.

Milton was very much politically involved during his time. He stood in strong opposition against absolutists like Richard Lovelace and Thomas Hobbes who were the opposing contemporaries of his time.

After Beheading King Charles I, the Parliamentes set out to have parliament govern the nation, but their plan failed and the monarchy was restored by his son King Charles II.
Milton essentially fell from paradise and was thrown in prison for several years of his life
When he was released he wrote Paradise Lost “in honor of the King”

Milton used “Paradise Lost” as an opportunity to share a political message against the monarchy of England and utilized Lucifer to be the promethean hero who brought consciousness to man.

Of course in a Christian light Lucifer will always be the villain, but in paradise lost he plays the role of the anti-hero
Lucifer, the light bearer who defied the king of heaven, who was damned for attempting to equal god, cursed our 1st human ancestors and thus tainted us forever with the mark of sin. But perhaps this is not so….

When looking at how similar Lucifer is to Milton it can be perceived that Lucifer is a sympathetic character who is trying to give human kind consciousness to the tyrannical rule of God.
The fact that we both fell and that the fall of man is introduced in book I first, the reader is already set up a relation to the protagonist.
In Lines 755-757 a solemn council of demons discuss the next plan of action after being expelled from paradise. This parallels the rule of heaven and its absolute monarchy. Here Lucifer and his followers can be viewed as the ‘roundheads’; supporters of parliament who fought against King Charles I.

“Something Borrowed” book review


I first read this book in high school and I remember staying up all night starting from the first page and not stopping until I reached the  end. I was 16 when I read this so now being 22 (23 next month) it is understandable that my perspective could change over time.

I really wanted to enjoy the book as much as I did the first time around. I love the movie and watch it quite often, but after reading this story again I understand why in the movie the characters seem so different and I think that’s because in the book it is really hard not to hate them.

I enjoyed this book a lot the first time I read it in high school, but this time around I found that there were a few aspects of Something Borrowed that really bothered me. Obviously Darcy isn’t the best of friend, but I don’t understand why they both like Dex. I understand why the movie is different from the book. He is more sympathetic in the movie, clearly in love, but feels responsible for his mother’s happiness. In the book he’s just an ass whole who can’t admit his feelings and can’t make up his mind. Not exactly the ideal Prince Charming you’d find in a novel like this and I say Prince Charming because Rachel is clearly a damsel in distress. She has her feelings all worked up throughout the story for this cheating bastard.

Don’t get me wrong, it was certainly a page turner and very well written, but the take aways I got from it were don’t ever sleep with your best friend’s finance and don’t pine after a guy who just can’t make up his mind. It actually really bothered me that Rachel ends up with him in the end of the book because she deserved a lot better. All relationships are hard and you can’t help who you fall in love with. Emily Griffin made a huge effort to make Darcy an unlikeable character, but two wrongs don’t make a right. And no matter how much you love someone make sure you grow a pair and tell them before you make the commitment to spend the rest of your life with someone.

Again, great book, but it was hard for me to like anyone besides Rachel even after she has sex with her best friend’s finance because she empathetic and it’s hard not to root for her. A lot of bad morals in this story, but a great read if you’re looking for something that will pull you in to the world it resides in.


I guess overall the thing that bothers me most about this book is the actions are so unapologetic and trying to take the work as something that could be true, its hard to stomach that people would treat their loved ones in such a manner. I guess that’s why this quote is so important to me, although it certainly not acted on as a major plot point for the story, but I guess all us mere readers can do is have some common sense and don’t treat the people who are your true friends the way the Character’s in this book do.

Words Are Power- Night John


Let me just say there were scenes in both the movie and the story that were hard to stomach, but it gave me so much more appreciation for the English Field I’m studying.

Words are power in this movie. Words bring education, it brings courage and insight. Words in this movie are forbidden because they could potentially unravel the order of slavery, but that doesn’t stop a few characters from learning them anyways.

It reminds you how powerful words still are today. I believe with education a man or a woman has the ability to change the world. It reminds you not to be scared and to have voice when people don’t allow you to have one.

It is a truly inspirational and moving movie and also an incredible book. It is said that the characters had no hope until they met Night John who taught them to be smarter.

*slight spoilers with sypnosis*

The movie is placed in the middle of the slave era on a southern plantation. The heroine is a curious little girl named Sarmy who’s mother was sold when she was a baby for talking back to the owner for his anger of not having a boy. There is a serious lack of empathy throughout this movie and the reason why I said it is hard to watch because it is an acute portrayal of what slaves went through. They are whipped, humiliated and not observed as humans and have no problem from their owners for having conversations in front of them like they are pieces of furniture, but I digress so I can get to the point of why this movie affected me.

Not all the white characters in this story are strictly evil, some have sympathy when the master does we called “Like training a dog…if you punish her later she wont even remember what for”However, there is only one

The Call and Response music in this movie was magical to see. For those who are familiar with musical history, Call and response singing is a traditional way of communication between the slaves. Often overlooked and a safe way for them to pass messages in the field. They can sing to each other if the master is coming or if they need to communicate.

The character Night John is brought into the story and the little girl is fascinated with his intelligence and demands to learn how to read and write. The other slaves who look out for her beg her not to because education is forbidden for them.

The take away is that education a gift that if known can’t be taken away. Priceless.

Night John does warn her that “Each time you make a letter you have to erase it.” White folks don’t want them to be educated. Knowledge is power. Huge way for slaves to show resistance.

I would say the girl in the story is a little reckless. She steals a bible in her growing urge to practice her letters and the youngest sons letter blocks.However, the more educated she becomes the easier it is for her to manipulate her owners.

In the movie it is shown that someone gets a thumb chopped off for being able to read, which just reiterates the fear of knowledge. Night John explains to Sarmy, “that learning to read is freedom because slavery is bounded by laws and deeds which the slaves cannot read.”

There is a scene when Night John takes the blame for the stolen bible and after he gets a finger cut off the master asks him if he has learned his lesson. He replies that he has and then begins to write the alphabet in the dirt. The letter he spells out is his name. He then tells Sarmy, “when one hand gets cut off, the other grows  back stronger.”

Sarmy is sold in the end, but because of John she has the ability to read and write. As the girl is joined to a line of other slaves, she asks if any of them have tobacco to trade. What has she to give in return? they want to know. And Sarny draws an A in the dirt. She sort fulfills the role in the end of teaching slaves how to read and write. Like Night John said “They have to read and write. We all have to read and write so we can write about this.”


P.S. if you have not yet seen the movie or read the book please do so. I do think this is a story that would benefit everyone. It’s packed full of lessons and history that shouldn’t be forgotten or ignored.


Zadie Smith “White Teeth” vs Charles Dickens “Great Expectations” Essay on White Privilege

This is a paper I wrote for an English course at my university, but I am posting it because I find that it is very relevant to issues today and hope that it will provoke thought about the society we live in and how it has changed over history.


White Privilege

The characters in both “White Teeth” and “Great Expectations” are heavily judged for their social status. The rich and successful are greatly respected while the lower class suffers from their societal status. In White Teeth, Zadie Smith presents characters that carry little identity confidence because of their perceived place in society. Smith’s characters live with slim to nil hopes of being successful and advancing in the social construct. Their precarious conditions stem from external forces such as racism, religious intolerance, and low self-esteem. Social class is also prevalent in Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. Some key players struggle and thrive on scarcity. However, despite their humble beginnings some characters do transcend beyond their static life and rise above their positions. In Great Expectations, the one common obstacle standing between a character and advancements are finances. In White Teeth, it’s not the lack of money that robs the characters from happiness, success, or confidence. There are several hurdles in the way. The characters in White Teeth face greater societal obstacles than the characters in Great Expectations because Smith’s characters are constantly at war with racism, religious intolerance, and identity crisis.

Racism is explicitly apparent on the first chapter of White Teeth. Aside from the jarring racial slurs, the reader is quickly informed characters will be described by their ethnicities. These descriptions, often expressed in derogatory manners by some characters, occur throughout the novel. Even so, the first few pages provide examples.

On page four, Smith introduces a boy named Varin, “a massively overweight Hindu boy” who works at a butcher shop. Varin could have been introduced as a “kind young man”, but his ethnicity is presented second to being physically unhealthy. Soon after, someone supervising Varin begins poking him in the rear with a broom handle, giving orders to wipe off the dead pigeons recently killed by the shop owner. The kitchen worker jeers, “come on, Mr. Fatty-Man …poking as punctuation for each word. Get-your-fat-Ganesh-Hindu-backside-up-there-Elephant-Boy-and-bring-some-of-that-mashed-pigeon-stuff-with-you” (Smith 5). Today, human rights laws prohibit racial slurs in the work environment. Poking someone on her or his bottom with a broom handle would warrant a lawsuit. Verin is clearly robbed of his human rights. This sort of abuse demeans a person, can cause anxiety and depression, and can damper their capability of achieving positive self-worth. According to an article found in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior published in 2012, racism and discrimination “is associated with worse mental health and physical health …and contributes to the relationship between multiple disadvantage statuses and health” (Grollman). Furthermore, the article explains that the chronic exposure to racism can accumulate over time and “ones opportunities and life chances predicts worse health” (Grollman 2). Racism is negatively charged and can smother and snuff a person’s self-worth and self-confidence out, hindering the pursuit of full potential. The over-arching theme of racism throughout the novel is borrowed from Smith’s own experiences growing up in “the so-called ‘Thatcher era’ – the time when Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister – was labeled by “a desire for a mono-lingual, mono-cultural Britain”: individualism and nationalism came to a new rise, and national identity was associated with being white.” (Holopainen). Smith

On page seventy-six, the characters Samad Iqbal and Archie Jones find themselves soldiering with two others in a tank during their younger years. Samad begins to gripe and express his misfortune. He believes he should have been an officer instead of an enlisted soldier. However, instead of receiving any sympathy or perhaps annoyance from his peers, Samad is suppressed because of his skin color. A soldier by the name of Roy contorts, “Indian officers? That will be the bloody day!” (Smith 76). Furthermore, Archie Jones denies Samad’s right to be English by disallowing him to kill a Nazi scientist. Archie says to Samad that “if anyone has a score to settle it’d probably be me. It’s Englands future we’ve been fighting for. For England, you know? Democracy and Sunday dinner, and …and …prominent piers, and bangers and mash-and the things that are ours. Not yours” (Smith 100). Smith uses Roy and Archie to reflect white English attitude towards non-white English citizens. If Roy and Archie are the reflection of white English perceptions then the non-white Englishman is inherently socially handicapped (Yancy).

Contrast to Great Expectations, education is not enough in White Teeth. While Pip rises from his social status with education, Samad never see’s the advantages. Pip fulfills his dream of becoming a gentleman. However, despite being educated and having served during the Second Great War, Samad’s occupation is a restaurant waiter. During his days in the war, Samad says “I mean, I am educated. I am trained. I should be soaring with Royal Airborne Force, shelling from on high! I am an officer! Not some mullah, some sepoy, wearing out my chappals in hard sevice (Smith 74). In Great Expectations, being educated leads to success. In White Teeth, if you are educated, but not white then your future still remains uncertain. When the characters are not white English then they are considered sub-citizen and less acceptable.

In White Teeth, all the characters seem to have assimilated their class and their ability to move up socially with their identity as being or not being white. The title “White Teeth” in itself is a metaphor for English white heritage or roots. On page 84 of the novel, Archibald explains that although he is dull he is very proud to be a Jones simply because it meant he was of “good English stock” (Smith). The characters Clara, Samad, and Magid all somehow assimilate themselves into white culture to move up in social rank. Clara is described to have changed her soul as the “Donny Osmond or Michael Jackson or the Bay City Rollers” (Smith 32). All three characters either change their identity or portray a societal perception to belong and be accepted by White class. Clara marries a white man and thus moves up her social rank simply by letting go of her heritage, dressing differently, and learning to lose her Jamaican accent. Whenever she found herself slipping back into her ethnic background she felt ashamed. On Clara’s wedding day the novel ties back into the metaphor of the title by explaining that she was wearing false white teeth. Although she had previously lost her teeth in an accident it can be seen that she was wearing Archie, a white Englishman as a way to assimilate herself into white English culture.

Samad is highly educated and often yearns for society to perceive him beyond an “Indian” identification. On page forty-nine, Samad explains his restless desire to demonstrate to the world that he is more than what he is commonly perceived. He deeply wants the world to see him as a person with depth, three-dimensional, and containing more than one aspect (being Indian). Furthermore, on this page Samad refers to himself as a waiter and not Indian. Smith shows the reader that race ultimately becomes embedded within identity, leaving the characters almost no choice but to identify themselves by their ethnicity regardless of how they feel. Unable to let go of his background as Clara did, Samad never finds his place as an Englishman and is often referred to as an Indian despite the long years spent living in England and fighting for it. He still falls to the fate of the other ethnic characters and assimilates himself into white society by having “the whitest teeth” (Smith 43) and by having an affair with a white woman.

Poppy Burt Jones, the white influence on Samad, tests Samad’s beliefs and practices. Strangely, in some manner, she influences him to dive deeper into English white practices. When Samad first meets Poppy he tells her that he plays bridge to be more attractive and portrays himself to be something other than he is. At the beginning of Chapter Seven, Smith demonstrates that Samad concocts identity by “packing the one shirt he’s never worn to mosque.” He does this to meet up with Poppy (Banerjee).

Additionally, in his early years, Samad can be found detesting the color of his skin and wishing to be less dark. When he was a youth, his mother used to rub white cream all over his body to make him lighter. She believed, as Samad also grew to believe, that he would be successful in life if he could be lighter pigmented (Smith 94). There may also be challenges in this process and, “where the resulting self-definition, for personal or collective reasons, becomes too difficult, a sense of role confusion results” (Erikson, 1968, p. 87) The kids seem unaware of how the adults treat them when it comes to their ethnicity, however as they become adults they are confused with their identities and their place in society. Samad moves his son back home because he believes that it is only in the native land that the children can really learn the culture. This thus further shows that the culture in England is strictly white and that ethnic identity is lost.

Samad furthermore reveals his efforts to assimilate by contradicting his faith and love for the East by trying to affiliate himself with English people and adapting to their customs. He also encourages Poppy’s racist remarks towards his customs and children so that he can remain attractive in her eyes. Magid, Samads son, is first introduced in the story when Samad meets Poppy. She remarks that it is unusual for Magid to be so intelligent and opinionated when Indians kids are usually subdued. Poppy’s racist words and behavior pressures Magid to associate himself as “Mark” while attempting to fully dissociate himself with any Bangladesh practices.

The White characters in the story such as Archie and Poppy feel less pressure to make up for their faults or talents in life because most of their identity is handed to them already. They do not feel the need to talk about their background nor the background of other white folks. They are simply English. They are often making ignorant racial assumptions about their “friends” and feel discomfort when affiliating ethnics and English. Poppy like Archie is said to have very few skills and is comfortable with being a one-show pony. They are handed respected titles like “captain, gentleman and teacher” based on the color of their skin. Archie makes no decisions for himself and leaves everything up to fate, not feeling the pressure other characters in the novel feel to have an identity or purpose in the world.

Unlike Great Expectations it is impossible for the characters of White Teeth to advance socially through carreer or money. The character Samad works with, Shiva, was said to have left the restaurant once in 1979 to start up a security firm, but nobody wanted to hire Paki bouncers so he was forced to comeback and be a waiter. Although Samad is an educated man with many skills he is often overlooked for raises at work and for promotions in the army. Although he personally sees this to be caused by the disability of his right hand, his peers reactions demonstrates that it is greatly to do with him being an Indian and never mention his hand. This was common for immigrants to come over to England with hopes of advancement only to be shot down because of their backgrounds. In Lecture it was seen through the song of “London is the place for me” by Lord Kutchner. In White Teeth this can be portrayed through Clara’s father, Darcus Bowden, who originally came to England to find work and save money to bring his daughter and wife to join and settle in with him. This was never to happen and after 14 years Hortense brought her daughter over by her-self only to find her husband had fallen into lethargy stuck in a chair and watching television, unmoving. (26)

In Great Expectations, some characters act in the interest to advance in society and gain confidence by solidifying some form of social identity. Pip, for example, leaves his sister and brother-in-law to pursuit becoming a Victorian gentleman. Miss Havisham ephemerally attempts teaching Pip English manners and aristocratic customs by inviting him to her home and playing with her protégé, Estella. Many can argue that simple association cannot educate someone. Later through the series, however, Biddy educates Pip. In contrast, characters like Joe Gargary are content with retaining their status and occupational position. Dickens describes as a “was a mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish, dear fellow,—a sort of Hercules in strength, and also in weakness” (Dickens 2). Being a blacksmith, Joe finds his line of work enjoyable and satisfying. Later in the story, Biddy says “Joe ever did his duty in his way of life, with a strong hand, a quiet tongue, and a gentle heart” (Dickens 35). The differences between Pip and Joe are ambition and humbleness and the only thing stopping either one of them is lack of finances. Comparing the two stories, the challenges obstructing the characters in White Teeth are not matters of money. Characters like Samad and Clara are deprived of fulfilling their dreams because of racial suppression, spawning internal turmoil. The racial stressors then confuse the characters in White Teeth and identity complexes become reality. But race and identity are not the only issues suppressing these characters. The theological normativity in England plays a large role keeping the characters in White Teeth down.

Religious faith in White Teeth holds heavy importance when it comes to how a character will evolve within social class. Faith in this story really seems to hold these characters back when it comes to their agency and dictates huge aspects of their daily lives and aspirations. It is also relative on how they are judged and accepted by society. In regards to white privilege, Christianity and Catholicism are the most accepted religions in Western Countries, in this case, England. Smith demonstrates this when Samad and Archie’s children are first introduced at the beginning of Samad’s section of the book. School holidays celebrated in the school are primarily “white traditions” and when the argument presented to remove Hindu practices to introduce the kids to other cultures is made, it is swiftly turned down (Smith 109). When it comes to the main characters of White Teeth, Samad seems to have put it best:


“The Russians told me. He’s a scientist, like me—but what is his science? Choosing who shall be born and who shall not—breeding people as if the were so many chickens, destroying them if the specifications are not correct. He wants to control, to dictate the future. He wants a race of men, a race of indestructible men that will survive the last days of this earth. But it cannot be done in a laboratory. It must be done, it can only be done, with faith!” (Smith 100).

Faith is arguably the leading factor in which these characters make their decisions and that includes their decisions to move up in class. It is part of their identity and makes it harder for them to go anywhere in a society where their faith is not regularly practiced or understood. Samad expresses on page 120 that he has “been corrupted by England” when it comes to his faith. This can be seen through some of the white practices. So many faiths are allowed in practice, but they are not understood, accepted, or adapted as a part of the dominant culture. When it comes to Clara’s faith and sharing with her anglo-neighborhood she is often met with a face stating that with “the few doors she received the usual pained faces: nice woman shooing her away as politely as possible, making sure they didn’t get too close, scared they might catch religion like an infection” (Smith 29). (Childs) This argument about faith being a part of their culture becomes even more prevalent in the white’s view of the ethnic. For example, Poppy and the school don’t practice tolerance or understand much about the religions they are teaching to the children. They see the events held as more of a “community thing” and make little effort to understand other ways of ethnic culture. Archie also has no faith, other than his need to flip a coin to make decisions. This fifty-fifty faith also mocks religious faith in the way it dictates his life and leads to choices whether it be committing suicide or keeping a red coat rack. Additionally, faith is the first thing that these characters seem to disband of in order to assimilate into white practices. Clara lets go, with heavy guilt, of her faith at the end of the world and Samad starts bargaining his faith when he has an affair with Poppy. It is interesting that these characters feel a need to let go of their faiths in order to assimilate to society.

The only matter standing before any ambitious character in Great Expectations is the lack of money. Aside from social judgment and scarce resources, these characters show no real need to transcend beyond their social status because they are white. Most of the characters in White Teeth, however, face far greater obstacles because they do not fit the cultural, religious, racial description of a white Englishmen. The characters in White Teeth are against large odds because of their social, religious, and racial statuses. Despite earning an income to advance, white Britain seemingly keeps them down. Throughout the book we see the working class and they are not white. Zadie Smith uses White Teeth as an example to magnify on social injustices and teach readers how to improve intercultural communication (Thomas). There is a generation gap in the story to show how people are still affected today by culture. Both mothers in the story feel anxiety for their children’s generation of losing their culture and becoming too transfixed into this white culture. I think this is used to show that their needs to be a balance. It is impossible for an ethnic group to move up in society unless they fully assimilate.








Works Cited


Arıkan, Seda. “‘History’ and ‘Root’ in Zadie Smith’s White Teeth.” Journal of Academic     Social Science Studies, 6.2 (2013): 1679-1696. 20 May 2016.

Blau, Francine. “Immigrants and Gender Roles: Assimilation Vs. Culture.” IZA Journal     of Migration, 4.1 (2015): 1-21. 20 May 2016.

Childs, E. “Insular Utopias and Religious Neuroses – Hybridity Anxiety in Zadie Smith’s  ‘White Teeth’.” PROTEUS, 23.1 (2006): 7-12. 20 May 2016.

West, Clare, and Charles Dickens. Great Expectations. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. Print.

Grollman, Eric Anthony. “Multiple Forms of Perceived Discrimination and Health            Among Adolescents and Young Adults”. Journal of Health and Social Behavior           53.2 (2012): 199–214. 20 May 2016.

Henry, Hani, William Stiles, Mia Biran, James Mosher, Meredith Brinegar, and Prashant  Banerjee. “Immigrants’ Continuing Bonds with Their Native Culture:           Assimilation Analysis of Three Interviews.” Transcultural Psychiatry, 46.2           (2009): 257-284. 20 May 2016.

Holopainen, Jonna. ““He Worshipped Elephants and Wore Turbans.” Bachelor’s Thesis.   University of Jyväskylä, 5 Oct. 2010. Web.

Ruth, Christopher E. Crisis as Opportunity: Personality Constructs and Erikson Identity   Development. n.p.: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2013. May 2016.

Smith, Zadie. White Teeth: A Novel. New York: Random House, 2000. Print.

Thomas, Matt. “Reading ‘White Teeth’ to Improve Intercultural Communication.”             Journal of Caribbean Literatures, 6.1 (2009): 15-30. 20 May 2016.

Yancy, George. Look, A White! : Philosophical Essays On Whiteness. Philadelphia:            Temple University Press, 2012. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 20 May  2016.